Organic Molecules With Oxygen And Nitrogen
While their characteristics and reactions may be different, their structures in the molecule can be explained in three sets. The first set is alcohols and ethers. They are similar in their structures by the fact it is a carbon single bonded to an oxygen. What is attached to the oxygen on the other side is what separates these two functional groups. If it is a hydrogen, then it is an alcohol. If it is a carbon on the other side, then it is an ether. The second set of groups is carboxylic acids and esters.
Both of these groups have a similar base that is a carbon that has a double bonded oxygen attached to it in addition to a single bonded oxygen attached to this same carbon. What is bonded to the other side of the single bonded oxygen will determine what functional group is being observed. If there is a hydrogen attached to the oxygens, then it is a carboxylic acid. And if there is a carbon attached to both the oxygen, then it is an ester. Finally, the third set consists of the aldehyde and ketone functional groups. In a ketone functional group, there is a carbon double bonded to an oxygen. On both sides of the carbon, there are only single bonded carbons. An aldehyde is the same as a ketone expect one of the carbons attached to the carbon double bonded to the oxygen will be replaced with a hydrogen.
In organic chemistry, there are four major functional groups that involve nitrogen:
Amines are the simplest in that it is a nitrogen bonded to potentially four total carbons and hydrogens. The type of amine is determined by how many carbons are bonded to it. If there is one carbon then it is a primary amine, two makes it a secondary, three a tertiary, and four a fourth degree amine. An amide is similar to the structure of a carboxylic acid. There is a carbon double bonded to an oxygen, but instead of another oxygen being single bonded to the same carbon, a nitrogen is single bonded to it. As the amide is like a carboxylic acid in its composition, the imine is like a ketone. Double bonded to a carbon is a nitrogen; and for the third and fourth bond to that carbon is another carbon or hydrogen. Finally, a nitrile is simply a cyanide group; carbon triple bonded to a nitrogen, attached to a carbon.